The precise terminology for some may vary between organisations and styles; what follows are the terms used by the Aikikai Foundation. (Note that despite the names of the first five techniques listed, they are not universally taught in numeric order.) Several techniques (e.g. the “drop” throws) are also shared with Judo, which can be considered a “cousin” of Aikido due to their shared Jujutsu background.
Katame waza (controlling techniques)
- Ikkyo (first teaching) a control using one hand on the elbow and one hand near the wrist which leverages uke to the ground. This grip also applies pressure into the ulnar nerve at the wrist.
- Nikyo (second teaching) a pronating wristlock that torques the arm and applies painful nerve pressure. (There is an adductive wristlock or Z-lock in ura version.)
- Sankyo (third teaching) a rotational wristlock that directs upward-spiraling tension throughout the arm, elbow and shoulder.
- Yonkyo (fourth teaching) a shoulder control similar to ikkyo, but with both hands gripping the forearm. The knuckles (from the palm side) are applied to the recipient’s radial nerve against the periosteum of the forearm bone.
- Gokyo (fifth teaching) visually similar to ikkyo, but with an inverted grip of the wrist, medial rotation of the arm and shoulder, and downward pressure on the elbow. Common in knife and other weapon take-aways.
- Rokkyo (sixth teaching) also called Elbow arm-barring pressure (hiji kime osae)
- Kote gaeshi (forearm return) a supinating wristlock-throw that stretches the extensor digitorum.
- Ude garami (arm entanglement)
Nage waza (throwing techniques)
- Shiho nage (four-direction throw) The hand is folded back past the shoulder, locking the shoulder joint.
- Kokyu nage (breath throw) a loosely used term for various types of mechanically unrelated techniques, although they generally do not use joint locks like other techniques.
- Irimi nage (entering throw) throws in which Tori moves through the space occupied by uke. The classic form superficially resembles a “clothesline” technique.
- Sokumen irimi nage (side approach entering throw) an entering throw at an angle on the persons side.
- Tenchi nage (heaven-and-earth throw) beginning with ryōte-dori; moving forward, Tori sweeps one hand low (“earth”) and the other high (“heaven”), which unbalances uke so that he or she easily topples over.
- Koshi nage (hip throw) Aikido’s version of the hip throw. Tori drops his or her hips lower than those of uke, then flips uke over the resultant fulcrum.
- Juji nage (cross throw) is an Aikido/Jujutsu technique where you throw your opponent crossing his arms.
- Kaiten nage (rotary throw) Tori sweeps the arm back until it locks the shoulder joint, then uses forward pressure to throw.
- Aiki otoshi (harmony of spirit drop) double leg takedown is done by grabbing your opponent around his legs from the side with both hands.
- Ushiro kiri otoshi (rear cutting drop)
- Sumi otoshi (corner drop)
- Seoi otoshi (shoulder drop)
- Tai otoshi (body drop)
- O goshi (large hip)
- Kata guruma (shoulder wheel)
- Aiki nage (harmonizing throw)
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